Medical contribution by Eric A. Widra, M.D.

Eric A. Widra, M.D., is the Executive Senior Medical Officer for Shady Grove Fertility and the associate director of the Combined Federal Fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility—a post-graduate training program for future leaders in this subspecialty, operated through the National Institutes of Health, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, and Shady Grove Fertility.

Vitamin D, also known as the “sunshine vitamin,” is produced in the skin in response to sunlight exposure and can also be consumed through food and supplements. 

What most people may not know is that a person’s vitamin D status may affect their fertility. We recently interviewed SGF’s Executive Senior Medical Officer, Dr. Eric Widra, to discuss how vitamin D may impact female fertility. 

What is vitamin D?

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the main form of vitamin D; It is in the skin, and it can be found in some food and nutritional supplements. Prescription vitamin D is vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). In general, research shows that we metabolize vitamin D3 more efficiently than vitamin D2.1

Given enough time in the sun, most of us can make all the vitamin D we need. However, many women do not get enough sun exposure to maintain a normal vitamin D level throughout the year. Few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D, so it is also difficult to get enough vitamin D from your diet.

Other factors also affect vitamin D status. For instance, if you are overweight or have dark skin, you may be at risk for vitamin D deficiency. For these and other reasons, many women trying to conceive are likely to be low in vitamin D.

How is vitamin D linked to fertility?

According to Dr. Widra, “The data on vitamin D and natural fertility as well as success during fertility treatment is mixed. There are some studies showing that being vitamin D replete improves success rates in both in vitro fertilization (IVF) as well as transfer of frozen donor egg embryos. Other studies have not demonstrated that connection.”

Although the data for vitamin D and fertility is not conclusive, it could be worth reaching out to your primary care physician for testing. Several studies have found that vitamin D blood levels of 30 ng/mL or higher are associated with higher pregnancy rates.2-5 Two studies found that among populations of mostly Caucasian and non-Hispanic white women, those with a normal vitamin D level were four times more likely to get pregnant through IVF compared to those who had a low vitamin D level.3-4 Another study found that donor egg recipients with a normal vitamin D level had higher pregnancy rates than those with a low vitamin D level.6

A recent meta-analysis investigated whether vitamin D blood levels are associated with live birth rates in women undergoing fertility treatments. It found that women with a level greater than 30 ng/mL had higher live birth rates than women with lower vitamin D levels.7

Is vitamin D also important during pregnancy?

Vitamin D may also improve the odds of having a healthy pregnancy. Studies have linked vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy with an increased risk of preterm birth, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia (very high blood pressure during pregnancy), and bacterial vaginosis. 8-11

So, continuing a vitamin D supplement once pregnant is good for both mom and baby. Research has shown that taking 2,000 – 4,000 IU of vitamin D is safe and effective in achieving a normal vitamin D level for pregnant women and preventing vitamin D deficiency in newborns. 12-13

“Our opinion is that given the simplicity and safety of treatment with vitamin D, the low cost associated with it, we should err on the side of having patients use vitamin D as they go through fertility treatment and enter pregnancy. For any medical intervention, you need to weigh the potential benefits against the risks and costs. The risks and costs are so low for vitamin D that any potential benefit is worth considering,” explains Dr. Widra. 

When should I see a fertility specialist?

Nutritional supplements can be an important complement to your fertility treatment but they do not replace fertility evaluation and care. You should have your fertility evaluated if you are under 35 years old and have been having unprotected intercourse without conception for 1 year, after 6 months if you are between the ages of 35-39, and more immediate evaluation and treatment are warranted if you are 40 and over. Women should consult their reproductive endocrinologist before beginning any vitamin regimen.

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To schedule a virtual consultation with an SGF physician, please call our New Patient Center at 1-888-761-1967 or submit this brief form.


  1. Houghton and Vieth. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84(4):694-7.
  2. Paffoni et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(11):E2372-6.
  3. Ozkan et al. Fertil Steril. 2010; 94:1314-19
  4. Rudick et al. Hum Reprod. 2012; 27(11):3321-7.
  5. Garbedian et al. CMAJ. 2013;1(2):E77-82.
  6. Rudick et al. Fertil Steril. 2014; 101(2):447-52.
  7. Chu et al. Hum Reprod. 2018; 33(1):65-80.
  8. Bodnar et al. Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125(2):439-47.
  9. Zhang et al. Nutrients. 2015; 7(10):8366-75.
  10. Baca et al. Ann Epidemiol. 2016; 26(12):853-857.
  11. Bodnar et al. J Nutr. 2009; 139:1157-61.
  12. Hollis et al. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26(10):2341-57.
  13. Rodda et al. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2015; 83(3):363-8.