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Improve Sperm Count: Sperm Quality Checklist

Medical Contribution by Dr. Naveed Khan
Medical Contribution By Dr. Naveed Khan

There are always new articles popping up about what a woman can do to enhance her fertility potential. These enhancements run from the practical—eating healthy, exercising, having an ideal BMI—to the more superstitious—eating exotic fruits and nuts or standing on your head after sex. What’s often left out of this conversation, though, is what the male partner should be doing to prepare for conception. While the man will not be carrying the baby, male factor is the cause of infertility in 40 to 50 percent of couples and male infertility may arise if his sperm count is low or the sperm have mobility issues.

The Center for Male Fertility

The fact that men produce millions of new sperm every day makes it highly beneficial to men who want to alter their lifestyle habits. Sperm take about 74 days to mature, which means that men who do make lifestyle changes only need to wait about three months before seeing improvements in sperm quality–increasing their chances for reproductive success.

Here are some suggestions from Dr. Naveed Khan of Shady Grove Fertility’s Leesburg, Virginia office on how to improve sperm count:

#1: Make Physical Fitness and Healthy Eating a Priority to Reverse Male Infertility

Increase Sperm Count: Eat Right & ExerciseAs with women who have fertility complications from being under or overweight, men suffer from similar complications. By maintaining a healthy diet and staying active, though, these potential risks can be alleviated. Abnormal semen parameters (i.e., low sperm counts and low sperm motility) increase with obesity. Overweight men have been found to have decreased levels of testosterone and elevated levels of estrogen, an issue that may impair signals from the brain that regulate sperm development. Overweight men are also at risk for impaired spermatogenesis, the process by which sperm are formed, due to increased scrotal temperatures.

#2: Kick the Smoking Habit and Improve Sperm Count and Quality

Increase Sperm Count: Quit Smoking & DrugsSmoking cigarettes can cause a decrease in the three main factors that determine a man’s sperm quality: sperm count, shape (morphology), and movement (motility). Studies have shown that damage from smoking is not necessarily permanent and may vary by the quantity and length of smoking history. A man’s fertility rate can completely return to normal within a year of quitting smoking.

Other drugs, including marijuana, have been shown to decrease sperm counts. About 33 percent of chronic users will have low sperm counts and men should avoid use when trying to get pregnant.

#3: Reduce Alcohol Consumption

Increase Sperm Count: Reduce AlcoholExcessive consumption of alcohol in men has been seen to have an impact on fertility in several studies. Men who consume large quantities of alcohol (five or more drinks per day) may have lowered testosterone levels and reduced sperm quality and quantity. Alcohol is also linked to erectile dysfunction (also called ED or impotence) in men, which is defined as the inability to maintain an erection firm enough for intercourse. It has been shown, though, that reducing the amount of alcohol consumed can quickly reverse these side effects. 

#4: Too Much Heat Can be Dangerous

Increase Sperm Count: Reduce Heat from Laptops, Cell PhonesSperm counts and sperm quality may be affected by frequent or long visits to saunas, steam rooms, and hot tubs (although occasional heat exposure like this should not have adverse long-term effects). This exposure to heat does not have a permanent impact on sperm though, and sperm should return to normal quality and quantity within a few months of discontinuing excessive heat exposure. Additionally, men should be wary of common household ‘heats’ like resting their laptops on their laps—an issue that can easily be resolved by using a laptop lap board or cooling pad.

#5: Low T Medications Can Create Unintended Consequences

Increase Sperm Count: Check Your Meds (Low T)Low T, or low testosterone, occurs when a man has testosterone levels that are below normal levels. While some men do have this condition, the vast majority do not, but advertising has led them to believe otherwise. In the British Medical Journal’s European Male Ageing Study, they found that low T (which they defined as a combination of sexual symptoms and measured testosterone level) was found in only 0.1 percent of men in their 40s, 0.6 percent in their 50s, 3.2 percent in their 60s, and 5.1 percent of men in their 70s.

Pharmaceutical companies have taken advantage of men’s concerns about Low T, using low energy, a drop in sexual interest, and other symptoms as potential clinical indicators. While these may be attributable to actual conditions, it is not necessarily Low T, and a physician should always be consulted before trying any medications. What does this have to do with fertility? Low T medications have actually been found to sometimes cause a low sperm count, creating the exact opposite effect of what was intended.

Watch below as Maria & Areen share their story and how they overcame male factor infertility:

Male Fertility & Sperm Count Can Improve with Lifestyle Changes

While there are many unknown factors that can cause male infertility, the lifestyle tips listed above have been shown to make a remarkable difference in men whose habits are affecting their fertility and sperm count. It is beneficial for any man who is trying to conceive with his partner to keep a healthy lifestyle: minimizing alcohol intake, quitting smoking, and eating healthy and exercising.

The Center for Male Fertility at Shady Grove Fertility offers a range of services including basic evaluation and testing to state-of-the-art microsurgical techniques. The program is led by Paul R. Shin, M.D. and Cori Tanrikut, M.D., board certified reproductive urologists who care for patients in our D.C. metro and Baltimore metro locations, respectively.

To watch our On-Demand Webinar on Male Fertility, click here. During this free on-demand event, viewers will learn about the simple tests used to evaluate male fertility, common causes of male factor infertility, lifestyle changes that can improve a man’s fertility, effective treatment options and treatment success rates.


To schedule a virtual consultation with an SGF physician, please call our New Patient Center at 1-888-761-1967 or submit this brief form.

Editors Note: This post was originally published in March 2015 and has been updated for accuracy and comprehensiveness as of November 2020.


  1. Amit Chavan

    February 11, 2020 - 8:14 am

    Very good information. I was seeking the way to increase sperm count hope it will help for me. Thanks

  2. Shigrapatan

    February 7, 2020 - 2:55 pm

    Very good article. Very informative

  3. Evan John

    July 29, 2019 - 6:59 am

    I am suffering from premature ejaculation. Do you think having low sperm count has a relation with this? Also any help to cure PE is very much appreciated. This is causing a very serious damage to my relationship.

    • Shady Grove Fertility

      July 30, 2019 - 5:38 pm

      Hi Evan!

      My advice would be to get an initial consult with one of our physicians so you can get specific answers, and hopefully some solutions, to your concerns. A low sperm count can be explained by a number of things, which are often discovered in a semen analysis so I recommend calling to make an appointment by filling out this form or by calling our New Patient Center at 1-877-971-7755.

      Wishing you the best of luck!

  4. john

    September 16, 2018 - 6:33 pm

    can you tell me about the sperm test

    • Shady Grove Fertility

      September 24, 2018 - 4:41 pm

      Hi John,
      If you have questions regarding the semen analysis process at Shady Grove Fertility, call 1-888-761-1967 for more information.

  5. Shakir

    February 8, 2017 - 4:59 pm

    Dear sir. Since five years of marriage .we dont have kids due zero motility and abnormal sperm plz advicethe right treatment

  6. Angela Stewart

    October 15, 2015 - 12:55 am

    Great article. Personally I have found that increasing testosterone by using testosterone pills for men should help a great deal with this issue as well as other benefits.

  7. Earl Sotelo

    May 1, 2015 - 12:42 am

    Great Information! I will like more information on male fertility.

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